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Cnidarians of the Deep

The phylum Cnidaria contains around 13,000 living species. Surprisingly simple, yet beautiful organisms, which come in a vast array of shapes and colours.

Common Name
Scientific Name
Diet
Size
Depth
Ecosystem/Habitat
Zone
Cnidarians
Cnidaria
Various prey from marine plankton and krill to small fish.
Range: 0.2 in (5 mm) to 187 ft (75 m) long
Varies between species.
Cnidarians live everywhere in the oceans.
Pelagic and Benthic Zones

Cnidarians of the Deep

The phylum Cnidaria contains around 13,000 living species. Surprisingly simple, yet beautiful organisms. They are classified based on a number of distinct features. For example, they tend to be radially symmetrical, meaning that their body structures extend outward from the centre. They are multicellular, and generally consist of simply an internal cavity and a mouth. But cnidarians come in two basic body forms - polyp and medusa - which often occur within the life cycle of a single cnidarian.

Generally speaking, Polyps are tube shaped and sessile with a ring of tentacles around the mouth. Anemones are a good example of this. Medusae, such as adult jellyfish, are umbrella or bell shaped, and can move freely with the currents.

The life cycle of a moon jellyfish sees its larva swim down to the seabed and attach onto rocks. There, it develops into a small polyp called a scyphistoma. Over a long period of time, the polyp undergoes a process called strobilation, rearranging itself into a tube-like structure that resembles a stack of coins. Each coin is in fact a tiny medusa, which are released in turn to drift off and develop into sexually mature adults. Some species are able to revert to an earlier stage of their life cycle, allowing them to regenerate themselves continuously.

Commonly called jellyfish, medusas possess tentacles that hang down below the umbrella. Their diversity is staggering. The largest, the lion’s mane jellyfish, has tentacles that grow longer than 27 metres - longer even than the blue whale. Many are slow-moving planktonic animals - meaning they aren’t efficient at actively swimming and must rely on ocean currents to help them move. But don’t be fooled by their apparent placid nature. Jellyfish have long been described as being the most important predators in the seas. Long tentacles are used for a range of functions, including catching food, and attacking using stinging cells called nematocysts.

It is these nematocysts which unite nearly all members of the phylum Cnidaria, from corals and anemones to jellyfish. They are a unique feature, a capsule containing a coiled threat which can be shot outwards to catch prey, or repel predators. A modified flagellum acts as a sensory trigger, rapidly ejecting the nematocyst thread when it’s touched.

This adaptation is an advantage to organisms that cannot actively hunt their prey. Instead, they adopt ‘sit and trap’, or ‘float and trap’ strategies, using their nematocysts to stun or kill prey that collide with their transparent tentacles. One of the deadliest examples of this is the Portuguese Man of War, a colony organism consisting of many small animals called zooids working together. It is made up of four separate polyps. The uppermost, a gas-filled bladder called a pneumatophore, sits atop the water like a ship at full sail.

The tentacles are the man-of-war's second polyp. Long, thin tendrils that extend 50 metres (165 feet) below the surface, covered in powerful nematocysts used to kill small creatures. Once a prey animal is captured, muscles in the tentacles draw prey up to a polyp containing the digestive organisms called gastrozooids. The fourth polyp contains the reproductive organisms.

Many cnidarians produce colonies like the Man of War, composed of tiny creatures. Siphonophores are abundant in the open ocean, consisting of medusa or polyp-like zooids. On the sea floor, sedentary colonies of polyps secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton to provide a rigid structure. These are the corals. Perhaps the most important cnidarians in the marine ecosystem, building expansive reefs that support a huge diversity of creatures. Their rocky structures provide shelter for reef fish and invertebrates, and protect coastlines from the damaging effects of waves and tropical storms.

They also play a part in the carbon cycle as a carbon sink, sequestering carbon in their skeletons. In doing so, they keep this carbon from returning to the atmosphere. Even after they die, the stony structures can store it for thousands of years.

Coral polyps form a number of important associations with other organisms. Notably, stony corals’ survival depends upon a symbiotic relationships with tiny algae that live in their tissues, called zooxanthellae. The algae use sunlight to produce sugars via the process of photosynthesis, and provide the corals with energy. In return, the corals provide protection for the algae within their tissues. It is this mutualistic relationship that upholds reefs, and consequently supports 25% of all known marine species.

Another relationship forms between crabs, and sea anemones that live on their shells. This association benefits the anemone by providing it with transport, and giving it better chances of finding food. The sea anemone protects its host from predators in return, of course by making use of its stinging nematocysts. Similarly, anemone fish like clown fish rely on symbiosis with cnidarians like anemones. The fish have developed immunity to the stings by secreting a thin layer of mucus over their bodies. Without it, the clownfish would be stung to death and consumed by the anemone.

Other fish have a similar association with larger drifting medusae. Those that are immune can take shelter among the jellyfish’s tentacles, baiting the trap for other fish. In all these examples, we see creatures from vastly different groups depending on cnidarians for survival. This goes to show just how important jellyfish and their relatives are in increasing biodiversity in the oceans.

Overall, there are so many different kinds of cnidarians that they have many points of importance. Coral reefs are formed of many millions of cnidarians and are home to staggering biodiversity. Jellyfish are important predators in the open ocean food web, but they serve as food for many other species as well. Sea anemones fulfil a similar role but in the shallows, also serving as hiding places for clownfish. Thus, this unique and abundant group of creatures is integral to the function of many marine communities, from the open ocean to coasts and the benthic zone of the deep sea.

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Ocean Watch | A Tale of Deep Sea Exploration
40:13
Natural World Facts

Ocean Watch | A Tale of Deep Sea Exploration

Ocean Watch: A Tale of Deep Sea Exploration, created in collaboration with Schmidt Ocean Institute. Support my work on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/naturalworldfacts Written, narrated and edited by me, Leo Richards. This channel (Natural World Facts) is my passion project dedicated to exploring the wonders of the natural world and telling stories that inspire! This film is unusual in that it is my first piece of contract work, commissioned by Schmidt Ocean Institute, who have kindly given me permission to post it here on YouTube - so the style might seem a little different to usual, but I had a blast making it. The film premiered at the Royal Institution in London. See the film's outro for full credits. Thank you to everyone at SOI who recorded the footage, gave interviews, piloted the ROV, kept the ship running, and managed a boat-load (literally) of media and footage to make this film possible! Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) is a non-profit oceanographic research foundation that has been pioneering deep-sea research and discovery since 2009, on board their old vessel RV Falkor and their new RV Falkor (too). Their remotely operated vehicle (ROV) SuBastian is equipped with a suite of sensors and a 4K camera that has illuminated the depths and live-streamed dives around the world. Most footage shown is filmed and provided by SOI. Check out their website: https://schmidtocean.org/ Dolphin mission: https://planetwild.com/worldfacts/8 If you love my content, you should check out Planet Wild. They're an environmental protection YouTube channel from Berlin. They’re on a mission to protect biodiversity in troubled ecosystems around the globe. They're on a mission to bring back endangered species, clean up our oceans from plastic and rewild entire forests to give them back to nature. If you want to get to know them, check out their work here where they’re protecting dolphins from noise pollution from tourist boats that are destroying their acoustic habitat. Planet Wild went to Portugal's Algarve coast to learn more about the secret language of dolphins and help protect them: https://planetwild.com/worldfacts/8 00:00 - Introduction to the Deep Ocean 05:39 - 1 - In Search of Hydrothermal Lost Cities 06:58 - 1 - Hydrothermal Vents of the Puy de Folles Seamount 08:46 - 1 - Hydrothermal Vent Formation and Processes 10:37 - 2 - The Underworld of Hydrothermal Vents 11:52 - 2 - The Tica Vent Field 12:43 - 2 - The Giant Tube Worm, Riftia pachyptila 13:43 - 2 - The Dispersal of Life at Hydrothermal Vents 14:35 - 2 - A New Deep Sea Ecosystem 15:17 - 3 - Octopus Odyssey: The Octopus Gardens 16:47 - 3 - New Findings at the Octopus Gardens 17:55 - 3 - Muusoctopus: Reproduction and Hatching 19:15 - 4 - Health Diagnostics of Deep Sea Corals 20:34 - 4 - Mesophotic Corals of Puerto Rico 22:19 - 4 - DISCO & SOLARIS: Reactive Oxygen Species Sensors 24:31 - 5 - Vertical Reefs of the Galapagos 25:29 - 5 - Corals of the Vertical Reefs 26:17 - 5 - Mapping the Vertical Reefs 27:05 - 5 - Wonders of the Deep Galapagos 27:57 - 6 - Ultra Fine-Scale Seafloor Mapping 30:01 - 6 - Innovations in Deep Sea Exploration 31:26 - 6 - Mapping the Deep Sea Floor 32:51 - 7 - The Challenges of Exploring the Deep 33:45 - 7 - Hydrothermal Vents of the Galapagos 34:31 - 7 - The Great Squat Lobster Trail 35:20 - 7 - A Newly Discovered Hydrothermal Vent Field 35:56 - The True Extent of the Deep Sea 38:17 - The Achievements of Falkor (too) 39:14 - Outro and Credits CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Music Used: All tracks sourced from Artlist. #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology
Mysteries of the Twilight Zone | Worlds of the Deep
36:46
Natural World Facts

Mysteries of the Twilight Zone | Worlds of the Deep

The Deep Sea Twilight Zone | Worlds of the Deep episode 1, a collaboration with Schmidt Ocean Institute. Thank you to Masterworks for sponsoring Natural World Facts. Skip the waitlist and invest in blue-chip art for the very first time by signing up for Masterworks: https://www.masterworks.art/nwf - See important Masterworks disclosures: https://www.masterworks.com/cd In the deep ocean, life is concentrated at chemosynthetic oases where primary production is made possible via chemosynthesis at cold seeps and deep sea hydrothermal vents. The non-chemosynthetic regions of the deep are divided into two very different worlds. First is the midwater, where pelagic wanderers tread migratory routes that span entire oceans, and planktonic drifters and their predators take part in bioluminescent light shows. It is separated into zones based on depth, including the sunlight zone (epipelagic), twilight zone (mesopelagic), midnight zone (bathypelagic), abyssal and hadal zones. And below, lies the deep sea floor. A kingdom of mud and ooze, where sessile creatures cling to any solid outcrop and corals craft kingdoms on the seamount crusts. The worlds of the deep sea could not be more different, and yet their stories are fundamentally intertwined. In this episode, we delve into the Twilight Zone. Support my work on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/naturalworldfacts Episodes: 1 - The Twilight Zone 2 - The Midnight Zone - coming soon 3 - The Abyssal Plain - coming soon 4 - Seamounts and Canyons - coming soon 5 - Hydrothermal Vents - coming soon Written, narrated and edited by me, Leo Richards. This channel (Natural World Facts) is a solo passion project dedicated to exploring the wonders of the natural world and telling stories that inspire! I'm so excited to share this series with you at last. Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) is a non-profit oceanographic research foundation that has been pioneering deep-sea research and discovery since 2009, on board their old vessel RV Falkor and their new RV Falkor (too). Their remotely operated vehicle (ROV) SuBastian is equipped with a suite of sensors and a 4K camera that has illuminated the depths and live-streamed dives around the world. Most footage shown is filmed and provided by SOI. Huge thank you to them for contributing their footage, and working with me to create this series! Check out their website: https://schmidtocean.org/ 00:00 - Introduction to the Deep Ocean 04:04 - The Ocean Midwater 05:21 - Introducing Schmidt Ocean Institute 06:54 - The Sunlight Zone (Epipelagic) 08:51 - The Twilight Zone (Mesopelagic) 10:40 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Gossamer Worm 11:28 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Bloody-belly Comb Jelly 12:12 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Swimming Sea Snails 12:48 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Deep Sea Siphonophores 14:47 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Meroplankton and Larvae 15:35 - Twilight Zone Drifters - The Life Cycle of Jellyfish 16:31 - Twilight Zone Drifters - Deep Sea Jellyfish 17:38 - Introducing Nekton - Active Swimmers 18:38 - Deep Sea Cephalopods - The Glass Octopus 19:10 - Deep Sea Cephalopods - The Glass Squid 19:52 - Deep Sea Cephalopods - Inking as Defence 20:41 - Deep Sea Cephalopods - Mimicry of Swordtail Squid 21:43 - Deep Sea Cephalopods - Hunting Techniques 22:38 - Deep Sea Adaptations - Countershading and Counter-illumination 23:54 - Deep Sea Adaptations - Silvering in Cutlassfish 25:43 - Deep Sea Adaptations - Silvering in Hatchetfish 27:00 - Deep Sea Adaptations - Strawberry Squid 27:40 - Vertical Migration - Introduction 29:14 - Vertical Migration - the Largest Migration 30:50 - Vertical Migration - Deep Sea Lanternfish and Humboldt Squid 32:30 - Vertical Migration - the Deep Sea Food Web 33:55 - The Midnight Zone (Bathypelagic) 35:13 - Sponsored Segment - Masterworks X NWF CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Disclaimer from sponsor: This video and information about Masterworks are not targeted to residents of any particular country or jurisdiction. Investing involves risk and the value of investments can go up as well as down. Before investing you should review the offering circular for the particular offering you are considering, including the section entitled "Risk Factors". Masterworks and its agents are not registered to of er investment services in any non-U.S. jurisdiction and the offerings have not been registered, reviewed, or approved by any regulatory authority in any non-U.S. jurisdiction. Accordingly, non-U.S. residents must take reasonable steps to confirm that their participation in a Masterworks offering does not violate the laws of the jurisdiction in which they reside. Music Used: All tracks sourced from Artlist, aside from the closing track which was created by Tatiana A. Gordeva. #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology
Deep Sea Gigantism | Why the Ocean Breeds Giants
32:49
Natural World Facts

Deep Sea Gigantism | Why the Ocean Breeds Giants

Deep Sea Gigantism | Why Creatures of the Deep Grow so Large. Enter at https://www.omaze.com/naturalworldfacts for your chance to win a Custom Tesla® Model S-APEX and support a great cause, the Petersen Automotive Museum. The experience closes on January 27th at 11:59pm PST and I promise, you don’t want to miss this! Deep sea (abyssal) gigantism demonstrates the role of natural selection in driving evolution and survival, particularly in an environment characterised by challenging conditions and limited resources. Evolution tends towards the most effective adaptations to grant animals the best chances of survival. And whether large or small, evolution selects for the best-adapted body size to survive these conditions. Though widely debated and often controversial, the research that has been done into the science behind deep sea gigantism has significant implications in the human world; it is believed that climate change may have a greater impact on ocean dwellers than any other population of animals. As the colder oceans warm up, the balance of temperature, oxygen supply, and what organisms are present, will throw the equilibrium off course. And the giants, which rely so heavily on this fine balance, may be the first to go. Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/naturalworldfacts 00:00 - Introduction to Deep Sea Gigantism 02:27 - Kleiber's Rule - The Pressure Misconception 04:06 - Kleiber's Rule - How Buoyancy Enables Gigantism 05:00 - Kleiber's Rule - The Efficiency of Larger Animals 05:52 - Kleiber's Rule - Food Availability in the Deep Sea 07:00 - Gigantism Examples - Gigantism in Amphipods 08:45 - Gigantism Examples - The Colossal Squid 09:18 - Gigantism Examples - The Humboldt Squid 09:38 - Gigantism Examples - The Magnapinna (Bigfin Squid) 10:52 - Gigantism Examples - The Sleeper Sharks 13:41 - Kleiber's Rule - Metabolism of Deep Sea Giants 14:59 - Kleiber's Rule - Gigantism in Sponges 16:02 - Polar Gigantism - Bergmann's Rule 17:43 - Polar Gigantism - Giant Polar Invertebrates 20:00 - Polar Gigantism - The Oxygen-Temperature Hypothesis 21:34 - Polar Gigantism - A Fragile Ecosystem 23:05 - The Island Rule - A Scale Model of Evolution 24:20 - The Island Rule - Adaptive Radiation (Darwin's Finches) 25:19 - Insular Gigantism and Dwarfism 26:29 - Deep Sea Gigantism and Dwarfism 28:16 - The Island Rule - Islands and the Deep Sea 29:40 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: [https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/](https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/) Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: Ocean by Aleksey Chistilin Il. Largo by Hawkins Under Canopies by Spearfisher Ripples by Tamuz Dekel Parallel Dimension by Onyx Music Marakana by Alon Peretz Come Back Home by Ardie Son Elapsed by Sémø Life by O.B Waiting for a New Day by Aleksey Chistilin Stream by ANBR Sun Up by Laurel Violet Home of the Gumon by Gareth Coker Slow Tides by Eleven Tales Beneath the Mountain by Rising Tide Autumn Nights by O.B #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: The Island Rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea - JSTOR (no date). Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3838549.pdf Vermeij, G.J. (2016) Gigantism and its implications for the history of life, PloS one. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4714876/ (Accessed: November 14, 2022). Why do some creatures in the deep sea grow to enormous sizes? (2022) Science ABC. Available at: https://www.scienceabc.com/nature/animals/creatures-deep-sea-grow-enormous-sizes.html
Into the Abyss: Worlds of the Deep (Official Trailer)
02:56
Natural World Facts

Into the Abyss: Worlds of the Deep (Official Trailer)

Explore the wonders of the deep ocean as you've never seen them before! In this collaborative film series, I am working with Schmidt Ocean Institute and their extensive library of 4K footage from an array the deep sea's remarkable ecosystems to bring their discoveries to light through a series of immersive films. Below are the episodes in order (subject to change). 1 - The Twilight Zone 2 - The Midnight Zone 3 - The Abyssal Plain 4 - Seamounts and Canyons 5 - Hydrothermal Vents I will also release two compiled films combining the midwater episodes and the sea floor episodes: 1 - Into the Abyss: The Midwater World (Full Movie) 2 - Into the Abyss: The Deep Sea Floor (Full Movie) Schmidt Ocean Institute is a non-profit oceanographic research foundation that has been pioneering deep-sea research and discovery since 2009, on board their old vessel RV Falkor and their brand new RV Falkor (too), the most advanced marine research vessels in the world. Their remotely operated vehicle (ROV) SuBastian is equipped with a suite of sensors and a 4K camera that has illuminated the depths and live-streamed dives around the world. All footage shown is filmed and provided by Schmidt Ocean Institute. Huge thank you to them for allowing me to access their footage, and work alongside them to create this series! Check out their website: https://schmidtocean.org/ Written, narrated and edited by me, Leo Richards. This channel (Natural World Facts) is a solo passion project dedicated to exploring the wonders of the natural world and telling stories that inspire! I'm so excited to share this series with you at last.
Into the Abyss: Chemosynthetic Oases (Full Movie)
01:00:10
Natural World Facts

Into the Abyss: Chemosynthetic Oases (Full Movie)

Deep Sea Chemosynthetic Oases Full Movie. Exploring hydrothermal vents, cold-seep habitats, and food-falls including whale-falls and the communities at shipwrecks. This is the full version of my 3-part Deep Sea Chemosynthesis miniseries. Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/naturalworldfacts Individual Episode Links: Part 1 | Hydrothermal vents: https://youtu.be/ECBbAjoEHWI Part 2 | Deep-Sea Cold Seeps: https://youtu.be/y2a9LJ3ZqAM Part 3 | Deep-Sea Food Falls: https://youtu.be/rLGOtKHy06o 00:00:00 - Introduction to Chemosynthetic Oases 00:02:00 - Chapter 1.1 - Hydrothermal Vents | Primary Production 00:07:57 - Chapter 1.2 - Hydrothermal Vents | Vent Communities 00:17:38 - Chapter 2.1 - Cold Seeps | Geological Origins 00:25:44 - Chapter 2.2 - Cold Seeps | Seep Varieties 00:38:50 - Chapter 3.1 - Food Falls | Whale-Falls and Carrion 00:45:18 - Chapter 3.2 - Food Falls | Wood-Falls and Shipwrecks 00:58:09 - Outro CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards Music Used: I can't fit it all here, but lists of all tracks used, in order of appearance, can be found in the video descriptions of the individual episodes. See the links above to view. I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Majority of footage is obtained through footage requests to the respective organisations. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Ocean Networks Canada, CSSF-ROPOS, Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Cordes, E.E., Bergquist, D.C. and Fisher, C.R., 2009. Macro-ecology of Gulf of Mexico cold seeps. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1, pp.143-168. FiShER, C., Roberts, H., Cordes, E. and Bernard, B., 2007. Cold seeps and associated communities of the Gulf of Mexico. Oceanography, 20(4), pp.118-129. Jones, B., 2022. The bizarre deep-sea creatures living on the Endurance shipwreck. [online] Vox. Available at: https://www.vox.com/down-to-earth/2022/3/9/22969054/endurance-shipwreck-deep-sea-animals Martin, W., Baross, J., Kelley, D. and Russell, M., 2008. Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Reviews Microbiology, [online] 6(11), pp.805-814. Available at: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1991 McClain, C. and Barry, J., 2014. Beta-diversity on deep-sea wood falls reflects gradients in energy availability. Biology Letters, 10(4), p.20140129. McClain, C., 2022. A Lonely Tree Far From Home Brings New Life to the Ocean Deep: A Narrative in Five Acts | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2012/04/a-lonely-tree-far-from-home-brings-new-life-to-the-ocean-deep-a-narrative-in-five-acts/ McClain, C., 2022. Will My Wood Research Be Poplar? | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2014/01/will-my-wood-research-be-poplar/ McClain, C., 2022. Wood, It’s What’s For Dinner | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2009/11/wood-its-whats-for-dinner/ Mullineaux, L., Metaxas, A., Beaulieu, S., Bright, M., Gollner, S., Grupe, B., Herrera, S., Kellner, J., Levin, L., Mitarai, S., Neubert, M., Thurnherr, A., Tunnicliffe, V., Watanabe, H. and Won, Y., 2018. Exploring the Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in a Metacommunity Framework. Frontiers in Marine Science, [online] 5. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00049/full Parsons, J., 2022. Amazing marine life now covers the 107-year-old Endurance shipwreck. [online] Metro. Available at: https://metro.co.uk/2022/03/09/amazing-marine-life-now-covers-the-107-year-old-endurance-shipwreck-16244253/ Sasaki, T., Warén, A., Kano, Y., Okutani, T. and Fujikura, K., 2010. Gastropods from recent hot vents and cold seeps: systematics, diversity and life strategies. The vent and seep biota, pp.169-254. Suess, E., 2020. Marine cold seeps: background and recent advances. Hydrocarbons, Oils and Lipids: Diversity, Origin, Chemistry and Fate, pp.747-767. Zierenberg, R., Adams, M. and Arp, A., 2000. Life in extreme environments: Hydrothermal vents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, [online] 97(24), pp.12961-12962. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.210395997
Deep-Sea Food Falls | A Tale of Wood and Bone
22:37
Natural World Facts

Deep-Sea Food Falls | A Tale of Wood and Bone

Chemosynthetic Oases | Deep Sea Food-Falls and Wood-Falls. The first 100 people to download Endel by clicking the link below will get a free week of audio experiences! https://app.adjust.com/b8wxub6?campaign=naturalworldfacts_june&adgroup=youtube The degradation of food-falls at the bottom of the ocean can create partially chemosynthetic environments. In the case of sunken whale carcasses (whale falls), the supply of organic material supports an ecological succession of communities. But perhaps less well-documented than the scavengers at whale-falls are the creatures that rely on wood instead. When trees become uprooted by storms or ships capsize at sea, losing their buoyancy as the pressure of the ocean forces out any air trapped within, bits of wood sink to the ocean floor where they create fleeting oases of life (wood falls), including shipwrecks, like that of the Titanic. The scarcity of food in parts of the deep ocean creates an environment where very little goes to waste. The animal and microbial life that dwells down here has become resourceful, able to make the most of even unexpected resources. So it comes as no surprise that the deep ocean hosts complex biological communities adapted to thrive on this sunken wood. Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/naturalworldfacts Part 1 - Hydrothermal Vents: https://youtu.be/ECBbAjoEHWI Part 2 - Cold-seep Environments: https://youtu.be/y2a9LJ3ZqAM 00:00 - Introduction to Deep-Sea Food Falls 01:45 - Whale-Falls - Partial Chemosynthetic Oases 02:18 - Whale-Falls - The Mobile Scavenger Stage 02:35 - Whale-Falls - The Enrichment Opportunist Stage 02:53 - Whale-Falls - The Sulfophilic Stage 04:05 - Whale-Falls - Ecological Stepping Stones 05:27 - Other Food-Fall Events 06:06 - Elasmobranch Food-Fall Events 07:20 - Wood-Falls - Origins and Formation 08:54 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Xylophaga Bivalves 10:07 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Giant Shipworm 10:24 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Munidopsis Yeti Crabs 11:01 - Wood-Falls - Terrestrial Deadwood Communities 11:45 - Wood-Falls - Endosymbiotic and Chemosynthetic Bacteria 13:03 - Wood-Falls - Bathymodiolus Mussels 14:00 - Wood-Falls - Ecological Stepping Stones 15:02 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of Whaling Brig Industry 16:06 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of Endurance 17:31 - Shipwrecks - Colonisers of Endurance 18:53 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of SS Bluefields and U-576 19:36 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of RMS Titanic 20:12. -Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: [https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/](https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/) Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: Snake Island by Piotr Hummel The Peruvian Protest by Max H Serenity by Max H Sleeper Valley (Alternative Version) by Ardie Son Aries by Laurel Violet Redefined (Reworked) by Christopher Galovan Silent Transmission by Tamuz Dekel Shallow Water by Yehezkel Raz When The Sunrise by Yehezkel Raz #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Jones, B., 2022. The bizarre deep-sea creatures living on the Endurance shipwreck. [online] Vox. Available at: https://www.vox.com/down-to-earth/2022/3/9/22969054/endurance-shipwreck-deep-sea-animals McClain, C. and Barry, J., 2014. Beta-diversity on deep-sea wood falls reflects gradients in energy availability. Biology Letters, 10(4), p.20140129. McClain, C., 2022. A Lonely Tree Far From Home Brings New Life to the Ocean Deep: A Narrative in Five Acts | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2012/04/a-lonely-tree-far-from-home-brings-new-life-to-the-ocean-deep-a-narrative-in-five-acts/ McClain, C., 2022. Will My Wood Research Be Poplar? | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2014/01/will-my-wood-research-be-poplar/ McClain, C., 2022. Wood, It’s What’s For Dinner | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2009/11/wood-its-whats-for-dinner/ Parsons, J., 2022. Amazing marine life now covers the 107-year-old Endurance shipwreck. [online] Metro. Available at: https://metro.co.uk/2022/03/09/amazing-marine-life-now-covers-the-107-year-old-endurance-shipwreck-16244253/
Robots in the Deep Sea (ft. Schmidt Ocean Institute)
13:19
Natural World Facts

Robots in the Deep Sea (ft. Schmidt Ocean Institute)

Exploring life in the deep-ocean midwater is a long-standing challenge for deep-sea research. The region between the surface and sea-floor, a space that constitutes the largest most biodiverse habitat on Earth, remains poorly understood due to the limitations of sampling its gelatinous, fragile inhabitants. Robots in the Deep documents recent innovations that allow midwater animals to be sampled in-situ, non-intrusively, with greater efficiency than ever. ROVs and new sampling systems are opening a window onto midwaters which, during these times of uncertainty surrounding deep-sea exploitation and its impacts, is crucial to how we approach stewardship in our planet's last frontier. Created in collaboration with Schmidt Ocean Institute. Written, narrated and edited by Leo Richards. Produced by Logan Mock-Bunting. Featuring interviews with: Brennan Philips (University of Rhode Island) Kakani Katija (MBARI) Peter Girguis (Harvard University) Schmidt Ocean Institute: https://www.youtube.com/c/SchmidtOcean/featured This film is being entered into the Jackson Wild film festival as a student entry. 00:00 - Introduction 01:25 - Meet ROV SuBastian 02:54 - Exploring the Auka Vent Field 04:55 - Sampling the Deep Midwaters 08:01 - Remote Imaging Systems 09:33 - In-Situ Sampling 10:19 - Digital Holotypes 11:52 - Pushing the Envelope 12:25 - Outro #worldoceanday #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology
The Peculiar Life of Cold Seeps
24:01
Natural World Facts

The Peculiar Life of Cold Seeps

Chemosynthetic Oases | Deep Sea Cold Seeps. 🌍 Get exclusive NordVPN deal here: https://nordvpn.com/naturalworldfacts It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! ✌️ The geological origins of cold seeps differ from hydrothermal vents. While vents form from volcanic activity at sea-floor spreading regions, cold seeps instead arise at the other end of oceanic plates, where they are subducted at the continental margin. Their formation begins with the burial of organic material under sediments on the sea-floor. These organic compounds degrade over time, producing methane. Over time, geological processes such as the tectonic compression of sediments at subduction zones forces the methane from deep reservoirs up through the overlying sediments. Anaerobic microbes dwelling below the sediment surface oxidise this methane using sulphate, producing hydrogen sulphide and bicarbonate ions as a byproduct. This hydrogen sulphide, along with any residual methane, then serves as a vital energy source for **chemosynthetic** microbes. Thus, it is a consortium of two distinct sets of microbes that makes primary productivity possible at cold seeps and lay the foundations of food webs here. The result is an environment remarkably similar to hydrothermal vents. We have a flux of sulphide and methane at the sea-floor, chemosynthetic microbes using these compounds, and an abundance of life exploiting this primary productivity, fulfilling similar ecological niches and forming biodiversity hotspots in the deep sea. Part 1 - Hydrothermal Vents: https://youtu.be/ECBbAjoEHWI Part 3 - Wood-falls and Food-falls: https://youtu.be/rLGOtKHy06o 00:00 - An Introduction to Cold Seeps 01:57 - Cold Seep Origins - Formation 03:28 - Cold Seep Origins - Seep Biodiversity 04:28 - Life at Cold Seeps - Bathymodiolus Mussels 05:02 - Life at Cold Seeps - Grazing Organisms 05:23 - Life at Cold Seeps - Siboglinid Tube Worms 07:13 - Life at Cold Seeps - Yeti Crabs 07:50 - Life at Cold Seeps - Predatory Organisms 08:20 - Life at Cold Seeps - The Benthic Filter 09:05 - Seep Varieties - Overview 09:47 - Seep Varieties - Mud Volcanoes 10:44 - Seep Varieties - Methane Hydrate Beds 12:57 - Seep Varieties - Asphalt Seeps 14:08 - Seep Varieties - Tar Lilies 15:47 - Seep Varieties - Brine Pools 17:29 - Ecological Succession - Carbonate Reefs 19:10 - Succession Stage I - Microbial Mats and Mussel Beds 19:50 - Succession Stage II - Tube Worm Bushes 20:02 - Succession Stage III - Carbonate Blockage 20:37 - Successional Stage IV - Coral Gardens 21:15 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards Seep Animation custom made by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: Ascend (reworked) by Christopher Galovan Their Souls by Piotr Hummel Mysa by Laurel Violet Folklore by Ardie Son Stories from the Sky by Sid Acharya Nocturnal by LEMMINO In Love with Emi by Fabien Fustinoni Corals Under the Sun by Yehezkel Raz Landing on the Ground by Yehezkel Raz #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Cordes, E.E., Bergquist, D.C. and Fisher, C.R., 2009. Macro-ecology of Gulf of Mexico cold seeps. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1, pp.143-168. FiShER, C., Roberts, H., Cordes, E. and Bernard, B., 2007. Cold seeps and associated communities of the Gulf of Mexico. Oceanography, 20(4), pp.118-129. Sasaki, T., Warén, A., Kano, Y., Okutani, T. and Fujikura, K., 2010. Gastropods from recent hot vents and cold seeps: systematics, diversity and life strategies. The vent and seep biota, pp.169-254. Suess, E., 2020. Marine cold seeps: background and recent advances. Hydrocarbons, Oils and Lipids: Diversity, Origin, Chemistry and Fate, pp.747-767.
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