Deep-Sea Food Falls | A Tale of Wood and Bone
22:37
Natural World Facts

Deep-Sea Food Falls | A Tale of Wood and Bone

Chemosynthetic Oases | Deep Sea Food-Falls and Wood-Falls. The first 100 people to download Endel by clicking the link below will get a free week of audio experiences! https://app.adjust.com/b8wxub6?campaign=naturalworldfacts_june&adgroup=youtube The degradation of food-falls at the bottom of the ocean can create partially chemosynthetic environments. In the case of sunken whale carcasses (whale falls), the supply of organic material supports an ecological succession of communities. But perhaps less well-documented than the scavengers at whale-falls are the creatures that rely on wood instead. When trees become uprooted by storms or ships capsize at sea, losing their buoyancy as the pressure of the ocean forces out any air trapped within, bits of wood sink to the ocean floor where they create fleeting oases of life (wood falls). The scarcity of food in parts of the deep ocean creates an environment where very little goes to waste. The animal and microbial life that dwells down here has become resourceful, able to make the most of even unexpected resources. So it comes as no surprise that the deep ocean hosts complex biological communities adapted to thrive on this sunken wood. They’re called wood-falls, and they’re able to support these biological hotspots by providing a concentrated source of nutrients. Part 1 - Hydrothermal Vents: https://youtu.be/ECBbAjoEHWI Part 2 - Cold-seep Environments: https://youtu.be/y2a9LJ3ZqAM 00:00 - Introduction to Deep-Sea Food Falls 01:45 - Whale-Falls - Partial Chemosynthetic Oases 02:18 - Whale-Falls - The Mobile Scavenger Stage 02:35 - Whale-Falls - The Enrichment Opportunist Stage 02:53 - Whale-Falls - The Sulfophilic Stage 04:05 - Whale-Falls - Ecological Stepping Stones 05:27 - Other Food-Fall Events 06:06 - Elasmobranch Food-Fall Events 07:20 - Wood-Falls - Origins and Formation 08:54 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Xylophaga Bivalves 10:07 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Giant Shipworm 10:24 - Wood-Fall Specialists - Munidopsis Yeti Crabs 11:01 - Wood-Falls - Terrestrial Deadwood Communities 11:45 - Wood-Falls - Endosymbiotic and Chemosynthetic Bacteria 13:03 - Wood-Falls - Bathymodiolus Mussels 14:00 - Wood-Falls - Ecological Stepping Stones 15:02 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of Whaling Brig Industry 16:06 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of Endurance 17:31 - Shipwrecks - Colonisers of Endurance 18:53 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of SS Bluefields and U-576 19:36 - Shipwrecks - Wreck of RMS Titanic 20:12. -Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: [https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/](https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/) Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: Snake Island by Piotr Hummel The Peruvian Protest by Max H Serenity by Max H Sleeper Valley (Alternative Version) by Ardie Son Aries by Laurel Violet Redefined (Reworked) by Christopher Galovan Silent Transmission by Tamuz Dekel Shallow Water by Yehezkel Raz When The Sunrise by Yehezkel Raz #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Jones, B., 2022. The bizarre deep-sea creatures living on the Endurance shipwreck. [online] Vox. Available at: https://www.vox.com/down-to-earth/2022/3/9/22969054/endurance-shipwreck-deep-sea-animals McClain, C. and Barry, J., 2014. Beta-diversity on deep-sea wood falls reflects gradients in energy availability. Biology Letters, 10(4), p.20140129. McClain, C., 2022. A Lonely Tree Far From Home Brings New Life to the Ocean Deep: A Narrative in Five Acts | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2012/04/a-lonely-tree-far-from-home-brings-new-life-to-the-ocean-deep-a-narrative-in-five-acts/ McClain, C., 2022. Will My Wood Research Be Poplar? | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2014/01/will-my-wood-research-be-poplar/ McClain, C., 2022. Wood, It’s What’s For Dinner | Deep Sea News. [online] Deep Sea News | All the news on the Earth's largest environment. Available at: https://www.deepseanews.com/2009/11/wood-its-whats-for-dinner/ Parsons, J., 2022. Amazing marine life now covers the 107-year-old Endurance shipwreck. [online] Metro. Available at: https://metro.co.uk/2022/03/09/amazing-marine-life-now-covers-the-107-year-old-endurance-shipwreck-16244253/
Robots in the Deep Sea (ft. Schmidt Ocean Institute)
13:19
Natural World Facts

Robots in the Deep Sea (ft. Schmidt Ocean Institute)

Exploring life in the deep-ocean midwater is a long-standing challenge for deep-sea research. The region between the surface and sea-floor, a space that constitutes the largest most biodiverse habitat on Earth, remains poorly understood due to the limitations of sampling its gelatinous, fragile inhabitants. Robots in the Deep documents recent innovations that allow midwater animals to be sampled in-situ, non-intrusively, with greater efficiency than ever. ROVs and new sampling systems are opening a window onto midwaters which, during these times of uncertainty surrounding deep-sea exploitation and its impacts, is crucial to how we approach stewardship in our planet's last frontier. Created in collaboration with Schmidt Ocean Institute. Written, narrated and edited by Leo Richards. Produced by Logan Mock-Bunting. Featuring interviews with: Brennan Philips (University of Rhode Island) Kakani Katija (MBARI) Peter Girguis (Harvard University) Schmidt Ocean Institute: https://www.youtube.com/c/SchmidtOcean/featured This film is being entered into the Jackson Wild film festival as a student entry. 00:00 - Introduction 01:25 - Meet ROV SuBastian 02:54 - Exploring the Auka Vent Field 04:55 - Sampling the Deep Midwaters 08:01 - Remote Imaging Systems 09:33 - In-Situ Sampling 10:19 - Digital Holotypes 11:52 - Pushing the Envelope 12:25 - Outro #worldoceanday #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology
The Peculiar Life of Cold Seeps
24:01
Natural World Facts

The Peculiar Life of Cold Seeps

Chemosynthetic Oases | Deep Sea Cold Seeps. 🌍 Get exclusive NordVPN deal here: https://nordvpn.com/naturalworldfacts It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! ✌️ The geological origins of cold seeps differ from hydrothermal vents. While vents form from volcanic activity at sea-floor spreading regions, cold seeps instead arise at the other end of oceanic plates, where they are subducted at the continental margin. Their formation begins with the burial of organic material under sediments on the sea-floor. These organic compounds degrade over time, producing methane. Over time, geological processes such as the tectonic compression of sediments at subduction zones forces the methane from deep reservoirs up through the overlying sediments. Anaerobic microbes dwelling below the sediment surface oxidise this methane using sulphate, producing hydrogen sulphide and bicarbonate ions as a byproduct. This hydrogen sulphide, along with any residual methane, then serves as a vital energy source for **chemosynthetic** microbes. Thus, it is a consortium of two distinct sets of microbes that makes primary productivity possible at cold seeps and lay the foundations of food webs here. The result is an environment remarkably similar to hydrothermal vents. We have a flux of sulphide and methane at the sea-floor, chemosynthetic microbes using these compounds, and an abundance of life exploiting this primary productivity, fulfilling similar ecological niches and forming biodiversity hotspots in the deep sea. Part 1 - Hydrothermal Vents: https://youtu.be/ECBbAjoEHWI Part 3 - Wood-falls and Food-falls: https://youtu.be/rLGOtKHy06o 00:00 - An Introduction to Cold Seeps 01:57 - Cold Seep Origins - Formation 03:28 - Cold Seep Origins - Seep Biodiversity 04:28 - Life at Cold Seeps - Bathymodiolus Mussels 05:02 - Life at Cold Seeps - Grazing Organisms 05:23 - Life at Cold Seeps - Siboglinid Tube Worms 07:13 - Life at Cold Seeps - Yeti Crabs 07:50 - Life at Cold Seeps - Predatory Organisms 08:20 - Life at Cold Seeps - The Benthic Filter 09:05 - Seep Varieties - Overview 09:47 - Seep Varieties - Mud Volcanoes 10:44 - Seep Varieties - Methane Hydrate Beds 12:57 - Seep Varieties - Asphalt Seeps 14:08 - Seep Varieties - Tar Lilies 15:47 - Seep Varieties - Brine Pools 17:29 - Ecological Succession - Carbonate Reefs 19:10 - Succession Stage I - Microbial Mats and Mussel Beds 19:50 - Succession Stage II - Tube Worm Bushes 20:02 - Succession Stage III - Carbonate Blockage 20:37 - Successional Stage IV - Coral Gardens 21:15 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards Seep Animation custom made by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: Ascend (reworked) by Christopher Galovan Their Souls by Piotr Hummel Mysa by Laurel Violet Folklore by Ardie Son Stories from the Sky by Sid Acharya Nocturnal by LEMMINO In Love with Emi by Fabien Fustinoni Corals Under the Sun by Yehezkel Raz Landing on the Ground by Yehezkel Raz #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Cordes, E.E., Bergquist, D.C. and Fisher, C.R., 2009. Macro-ecology of Gulf of Mexico cold seeps. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1, pp.143-168. FiShER, C., Roberts, H., Cordes, E. and Bernard, B., 2007. Cold seeps and associated communities of the Gulf of Mexico. Oceanography, 20(4), pp.118-129. Sasaki, T., Warén, A., Kano, Y., Okutani, T. and Fujikura, K., 2010. Gastropods from recent hot vents and cold seeps: systematics, diversity and life strategies. The vent and seep biota, pp.169-254. Suess, E., 2020. Marine cold seeps: background and recent advances. Hydrocarbons, Oils and Lipids: Diversity, Origin, Chemistry and Fate, pp.747-767.
Head Outside and Connect with Local Wildlife #shorts
01:00
Natural World Facts

Head Outside and Connect with Local Wildlife #shorts

This is your sign to get out there and connect with the wildlife of your local area! Wherever you are in the world, take a moment to appreciate the nature in the places you'd least expect it. In addition, throughout the whole month of May, the BackyardBio project is hoping people will take the chance to document what they find through photographs, sketches and stories and will share it with the world to help foster a global appreciation for biodiversity everywhere. The project was created by my friend Jesse Hildebrand. That said, this is not an ad - all you need is yourself and some means of recording any observations. I think it's a wonderful way to get involved in a month of wildlife appreciation! You can find more information about it here - https://www.backyardbio.net/ There are three ways to get involved: 1. On social media using the #backyardbio - share images of wild creatures or of yourself out enjoying nature! 2. Via the iNaturalist app. By joining the BackyardBio-2022 iNaturalist project all your observations will be collated together to provide a snapshot of all the living things around the globe. For younger kids, the Seek app is recommended as it makes nature learning an engaging game and prevents location data for little ones being collected. 3. For teachers, register your classroom with the BackyardBio.net website where your class will be partnered with others of the same age around the world to join in a shared BackyardBio experience. But most importantly, just be sure to spend some time outdoors and interact with the local wildlife that’s all-too-often overlooked! 🍃
Hydrothermal Vents | Oases in the Deep Sea
19:39
Natural World Facts

Hydrothermal Vents | Oases in the Deep Sea

Chemosynthetic Oases | Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents. Join me and go carbon neutral with Klima today. Click https://klima.onelink.me/GVvD/naturalworldfacts and enter code NATURALWORLD10 to claim 10 additional trees. The process of chemosynthesis is similar to photosynthesis. Both can be defined as the creation of organic matter from the fixation of inorganic carbon using energy. But what differs is the source of that energy. In parts of the deep sea, primary production is fuelled by chemical energy, rather than energy from the sun. But this can only take place at certain sea-floor environments where the required chemicals are released into the water. The two main examples of such environments are hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps. The former were only discovered in 1977 when scientists were exploring an oceanic spreading ridge near the Galapagos Islands. What they discovered was a hidden world that revolutionised our understanding of how and where life on Earth can exist. Since then, hundreds more vent field have been discovered, often at depths of 2km or more, along Earth’s convergent plate boundaries and at sea-floor spreading regions where the oceanic crust is moving apart. Part 2: Coming Soon Part 3 - Wood-falls and Food-falls: https://youtu.be/rLGOtKHy06o 00:00 - An Introduction to Chemosynthetic Oases 02:15 - Primary Production - Hydrothermal Vents 03:54 - Primary Production - Formation of Hydrothermal Vents 05:19 - Primary Production - Types of Hydrothermal Vents 06:00 - Primary Production - Chemosynthesis at Hydrothermal Vents 07:24 - Vent Communities - An Oasis in the Deep Sea 09:09 - Vent Communities - Interspecific Competition 10:12 - Vent Communities - Resource Partitioning 11:07 - Adaptations at Vents - Grazers and Suspension Feeders 11:46 - Adaptations at Vents - Yeti Crabs and Microbial Epibionts 12:17 - Adaptations at Vents - Tubeworm Endosymbiosis 13:06 - Adaptations at Vents - The Pompeii Worm 14:05 - Adaptations at Vents - Predatory Organisms 14:31 - Adaptations at Vents - Deep-sea Skates 14:57 - Adaptations at Vents - Life on the Periphery 15:50 - Adaptations at Vents - Endemism 16:15 - Adaptations at Vents - Origins of Life 17:13 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Written, Narrated and Edited by Leo Richards Vent Animation custom made by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are transformative and for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Most footage is used with explicit permission of the copyright owner. In cases where I cannot contact the owner or have not received a reply, I use certain clips in accordance with the Fair Use policy. Music Used: How it Was by Laurel Violet Inborn by Piotr Hummel Back Home by Max H Once Loved by Max H Escaping Forever by Michael Vignola One Word (reworked) by Christopher Galovan Deep Blue Sea (instrumental) by Yehezkel Raz Autumn Nights by O.B #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: Martin, W., Baross, J., Kelley, D. and Russell, M., 2008. Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Reviews Microbiology, [online] 6(11), pp.805-814. Available at: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1991 Mullineaux, L., Metaxas, A., Beaulieu, S., Bright, M., Gollner, S., Grupe, B., Herrera, S., Kellner, J., Levin, L., Mitarai, S., Neubert, M., Thurnherr, A., Tunnicliffe, V., Watanabe, H. and Won, Y., 2018. Exploring the Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in a Metacommunity Framework. Frontiers in Marine Science, [online] 5. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00049/full Zierenberg, R., Adams, M. and Arp, A., 2000. Life in extreme environments: Hydrothermal vents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, [online] 97(24), pp.12961-12962. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.210395997
The Secret Life of Brine Pools
12:19
Natural World Facts

The Secret Life of Brine Pools

Deep Sea Brine Pools. 🌍 Get exclusive NordVPN deal here: https://nordvpn.com/naturalworldfacts It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! ✌️ Deep Sea Brine Pools appear to be biological dead-zones in the ocean, and yet an astounding abundance of ocean life can be found lining the shores of these toxic lakes. Mussels, hagfish, crabs and even sharks frequent these isolated hotspots to hunt. A community of uniquely adapted organisms is able to thrive on the brine pool shore; in a similar fashion to the life that inhabits deep sea hydrothermal vent communities, we find organisms capable of chemosynthesis, as well as other organisms preying on them – all interacting and existing on the borders of a toxic pool of brine. As the energy here is largely supplied by chemosynthesis, rather than sunlight, brine pools also mirror hydrothermal vents in demonstrating how the extreme deep sea ecosystem is unique in the ways in which it supports life. There are no photosynthesising primary producers converting sunlight to energy, as the light of the sun cannot reach these depths. Instead, energy is supplied by the Earth itself. 00:00 - An Introduction to Brine Pools 01:39 - Brine Pool Origins - Formation in the Gulf of Mexico 03:01 - Brine Pool Origins - Landforms and Features 04:10 - Life on the Edge - Hot Tubs of Despair 05:31 - Life on the Edge - Biological Hotspots 06:54 - Life on the Edge - A Chemosynthetic Oasis 07:54 - Life on the Edge - Ecological Interactions 09:12 - Life on the Edge - A Delicate Ecosystem 09:38 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ Narrated by Leo Richards Co-written by Leo Richards and Blake Frutiger Blake's socials: https://www.instagram.com/bfrutiger99/ I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Music Used: Wonder by VYEN Ambient Sci-Fi Music by Eon Inhale by VYEN Signal To Noise by Scott Buckley Storyteller by O.B. #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: http://www.oceanx.org/brine-pools-exploring-an-alien-world-for-blue-planet-ii/ https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02mexico/background/brinepool/brinepool.html https://www.science.gov/topicpages/d/deep+brine+pool https://www.scienceandthesea.org/program/201104/brine-lakes
The Stages of Whale Decomposition
13:52
Natural World Facts

The Stages of Whale Decomposition

Whale-falls of the Deep Sea. For your chance to win the Tahoe Dream House and support a great cause, enter at https://www.omaze.com/naturalworld Fallen whale carcasses, abundant in the deep-sea, form ecosystems of their own. When a whale dies and sinks, the carcass provides a sudden, concentrated food source and creates an 'island' of organic matter on an otherwise food-poor seabed. Its body can last for decades, supporting an ever-changing ecosystem that blooms out of the barren darkness like flowers in spring. As it decomposes, different stages support a succession of marine biological communities. It is these complex and fascinating stages that we will explore in this video. READ MORE: https://www.naturalworldfacts.com/whale-fall-ecosystems #deepsea #wildlife #nature #animals #ocean #fish #science #biology 00:00 - A Introduction to Whale-falls 01:44 - Ecology of a Whale-fall - Islands on the Sea-floor 02:55 - Ecology of a Whale-fall - Ecological Succession 04:05 - Formation of a Whale-fall 05:13 - Stage 1: The Mobile Scavenger Stage 06:45 - Stage 2: The Enrichment Opportunist Stage 08:15 - Stage 3: The Sulfophilic Stage 10:11 - Stage 4: The Reef Stage 11:06 - Conclusion Footage used is from Nautilus Live, MBARI, MarumTV, Jamstec and various YouTube sources. Please reach out if any further clarification is needed. Music Used: In The Throes by Asher Fulero Sonora by Quincas Moreira Noir Et Blanc Vie by Knowpe Finding the Pattern by Jessica Curry A Choice by Jessica Curry The Manifestation by Jessica Curry Resources: https://www.npr.org/2019/09/13/760664122/what-happens-after-a-whale-dies https://nerc.ukri.org/planetearth/stories/137/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25251277/ https://www.mbari.org/whale-falls-islands-of-abundance-and-diversity-in-the-deep-sea/
The Mysterious Realm of Deep Sea Sponges
14:53
Natural World Facts

The Mysterious Realm of Deep Sea Sponges

Deep Sea Sponges (Porifera). 🌍 Get exclusive NordVPN deal here: https://nordvpn.com/naturalworldfacts It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! ✌️ Sponges (Porifera) of the deep sea play a vital role in supporting communities of life. With over 8,500 sponge species known to science, and colonising vast areas of the sea floor from the shallow intertidal zone to the continental slope and the abyssal plain of the deep, their success is extraordinary and their importance unparalleled. They are ecosystem engineers. By building reefs and cycling nutrients, they form the foundation of many communities, and have been doing so for over 600 million years. This is the wonderful world of sponges. 00:00 - Introduction to Sponges 01:35 - Anatomy of Sponges - The Basic Morphology 02:28 - Anatomy of Sponges - Boring and Encrusting Sponges 02:51 - Anatomy of Sponges - Erect Sponges 03:11 - Anatomy of Sponges - The Sclereocytes 03:52 - Anatomy of Sponges - The Archeocytes 04:13 - Anatomy of Sponges - The Choanocytes 04:45 - Role of Sponges - The Importance of Pumping 05:26 - Role of Sponges - Reef-builders 06:33 - Role of Sponges - The Sponge Crab Symbiosis 07:52 - Sponges of the Deep - The Sponge Gardens 09:09 - Sponges of the Deep - Carnivorous Sponges 10:16 - Sponges of the Deep - Benthic-Pelagic Coupling 11:03 - Sponges of the Deep - Calcareous Sponges 11:30 - Sponges of the Deep - Silaceous Sponges 12:06 - Sponges of the Deep - Life at the Vents 12:33 - Conclusion CHECK OUT OUR DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Music Used: Storyteller by O.B Into Memories by Viam Spiritus Autumn Nights by O.B Life by O.B Thinking of You by O.B #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sponge.html https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-20389-4_9 https://usa.oceana.org/deep-sea-corals-and-sponges-0/ https://www.biologydiscussion.com/invertebrate-zoology/phylum-porifera/3-main-classes-of-phylum-porifera/32574
Deep Sea Aggregations Explained | Safety in Numbers
17:49
Natural World Facts

Deep Sea Aggregations Explained | Safety in Numbers

Deep Sea Aggregations Explained. Go to Squarespace.com for a free trial, and when you’re ready to launch, go to http://www.squarespace.com/naturalworldfacts to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain. In the deep sea, going alone is rarely an option. The harsh environments of the deep ocean are an imposing challenge for a lone organism to face, as the dark conceals many dangers, while dazzling bioluminescence deceives unwitting prey. For this reason, deep sea animals tend not to spread out. Instead, wherever possible, they come together in their masses to create abundant patches of life in the lonely depths. Hotspots of biodiversity, in stark contrast with the otherwise barren stretch of darkness. Safety in numbers is a fool-proof survival strategy that increases their chances of finding food, evading predation, or having reproductive success in the endless blue. From vibrant coral gardens and deep sea scavenger communities, to expansive jellyfish blooms that cloud the ocean surface, these are the animal aggregations of the oceans. 00:00 - An Introduction to Deep Sea Aggregations 01:48 - Pelagic Aggregations - Challenges of the Open Ocean 02:49 - Pelagic Aggregations - The Jellyfish Blooms 04:08 - Pelagic Aggregations - Schooling and Shoaling of Fish 05:42 - Pelagic Aggregations - The Great Diel Vertical Migration 07:01 - Pelagic Aggregations - The Nutrient Supply Chain 07:56 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Colonisers of the Benthos 08:15 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Scavenger Communities 09:01 - Sea-floor Aggregations - The Life of Whale-falls 10:37 - Sea-floor Aggregations - The Octopus Garden 10:57 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Cold-water Coral Gardens 11:25 - Sea-floor Aggregations - The Importance of Seamounts 12:11 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Deep Sea Sessile Communities 12:34 - Sea-floor Aggregations - The Sponge Grounds 13:42 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Symbiosis in the Benthos 14:32 - Sea-floor Aggregations - Chemosynthetic Communities 15:42 - Conclusion CHECK OUT MY DEEP SEA WEBSITE: https://naturalworldfacts.com/deep-sea-hub/ I do not own any of the footage. I write the script, narrate, and edit what footage I can find, which is allowed due to YouTube's 'Fair Use' policy as these films are for educational purposes. Footage used belongs to the incredible marine conservation societies of Schmidt Ocean Institute, MBARI, WHOI and the Ocean Exploration Institute, along with various other YouTube sources. Music Used: On Earth by We Dream of Eden When I Looked Up by We Dream of Eden Earth by Luca Francini Crystal Sky by virtualmaxx 'Ambient Sci-fi Music' by Eon See You Soon by Samuel Plachtinsky Soul’s Departure by Darren Curtis Eternal Sleep by Darren Curtis Sounds of the Deep by Darren Curtis A big thank you to We Dream of Eden for letting me use their tracks! Links below: YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdQpf_7qoyjPfwoF4Oy2gBA/featured Website: https://www.wedreamofeden.com/#home-section #deepsea #wildlife #nature #documentary #ocean #marinebiology #science #biology Bibliography: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21962752/ http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Aggregation_and_marine_biological_value https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967063718302437